Hyperglycemia causes yet more complications on cells because it increases formation of advanced glycation end (AGE) products (1-5). AGE products are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between reducing sugars and proteins, lipoproteins and nucleic acids and, in consequence, increase susceptibility to oxidative stress (1-5).
These AGE products are thought to accelerate “vascular cell aging” resulting in cardiovascular disease (1) , “brain aging” resulting in cognitive dysfunction and dementia (2). For these reasons, strong glycemic control may be valuable treatment (4).
1. Orasanu G, Plutzky J. The pathologic continuum of diabetic vascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:S35-S42.
2. Roriz-Filho S, Sa-Roriz TM, Rosset I et al. (Pre)diabetes, brain aging, and cognition. Biochim Biophys Acta 2008.
3. Piwowar A, Knapik-Kordecka M, Szczecinska J, Warwas M. Plasma glycooxidation protein products in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008;24:549-53.
4. Nogueira-Machado JA, Chaves MM. From hyperglycemia to AGE-RAGE interaction on the cell surface: a dangerous metabolic route for diabetic patients. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2008;12:871-82.
5. Gasser A, Forbes JM. Advanced glycation: implications in tissue damage and disease. Protein Pept Lett 2008;15:385-91.